O´Reilly´s bestselling book on Linux´s bash shell is at it again. Now that Linux is an established player both as a server and on the desktop Learning the bash Shell has been updated and refreshed to account for all the latest changes. Indeed, this third edition serves as the most valuable guide yet to the bash shell. As any good programmer knows, the first thing users of the Linux operating system come face to face with is the shell the UNIX term for a user interface to the system. In other words, it´s what lets you communicate with the computer via the keyboard and display. Mastering the bash shell might sound fairly simple but it isn´t. In truth, there are many complexities that need careful explanation, which is just what Learning the bash Shell provides. If you are new to shell programming, the book provides an excellent introduction, covering everything from the most basic to the most advanced features. And if you´ve been writing shell scripts for years, it offers a great way to find out what the new shell offers. Learning the bash Shell is also full of practical examples of shell commands and programs that will make everyday use of Linux that much easier. With this book, programmers will learn: - How to install bash as your login shell - The basics of interactive shell use, including UNIX file and directory structures, standard I/O, and background jobs - Command line editing, history substitution, and key bindings - How to customize your shell environment without programming - The nuts and bolts of basic shell programming, flow control structures, command-line options and typed variables - Process handling, from job control to processes, coroutines and subshells - Debugging techniques, such as trace and verbose modes - Techniques for implementing system-wide shell customization and features related to system security
Continuing his exploration of the organization of complexity and the science of design, this new edition of Herbert Simon´s classic work on artificial intelligence adds a chapter that sorts out the current themes and tools--chaos, adaptive systems, genetic algorithms--for analyzing complexity and complex systems.
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No mercado global, competitivo e em constante mudança consideramos ser importante que as Micro, Pequenas e Médias Empresas, enquanto parte significativa do tecido empresarial nacional, se tornem competitivas e, assim, entendemos importante avaliar como o nível de envolvimento no Comércio Eletrónico (CE), em relações Business-to-Consumer, pode influenciar o sucesso de uma microempresa do setor de comércio a retalho, com foco na sub-região portuguesa Pinhal Interior Norte. Sendo uma região que está longe das grandes metrópoles, de onde a população mais jovem e com maior nível de escolaridade se distancia, restando pouco mais do que a população mais velha e com menor nível de escolaridade, consideramos interessante estudar se as microempresas da região estão preparadas para a nova era da tecnologia como um modelo de negócio para as suas empresas. Conseguimos confirmar que 62,50% das empresas analisadas viu o seu resultado financeiro aumentado após a adoção do CE, o que nos permite estabelecer a existência de uma relação entre os dois factos.
Advances in hardware and networking have made possible a wide use of augmented reality (AR) technologies. However, simply putting those hardware and technologies together does not make a ´´good´´ system for end users to use. New design principles and evaluation methods specific to this emerging area are urgently needed to keep up with the advance in technologies. Human Factors in Augmented Reality Environments is the first book on human factors in AR, addressing issues related to design, development, evaluation and application of AR systems. Topics include surveys, case studies, evaluation methods and metrics, HCI theories and design principles, human factors and lessons learned and experience obtained from developing, deploying or evaluating AR systems. The contributors for this cutting-edge volume are well-established researchers from diverse disciplines including psychologists, artists, engineers and scientists. Human Factors in Augmented Reality Environments is designed for a professional audience composed of practitioners and researchers working in the field of AR and human-computer interaction. Advanced-level students in computer science and engineering will also find this book useful as a secondary text or reference.
Due to digital advancements large volumes of data are being generated by the modern applications. In order to accurately categorize the data in these large datasets, clustering algorithms are used. This book presents a literature review of various traditional clustering algorithms and their comparisons from a theoretical perspective. The book also provides the survey of applications of clustering techniques on I) web log data, II) image data and III) biological data. One of the major drawbacks with the traditional clustering algorithms is that they are computationally expensive when the input datasize is too large. To overcome this problem, we also provide a comprehensive study of recent MapReduce based clustering algorithms which extend the traditional counterpart with Map-Reduce programming paradigm. Mainly this book is suitable for researchers who are interested in the field of pattern discovery from large datasets using MapReduce clustering. It will help them carrying out data clustering in distributed environment. More importantly, the issues and open areas discussed in this book will help the researchers in identifying their future direction.
Este trabalho apresenta uma proposta para monitorar e prever o nível do rio Amazonas na cidade de Santarém, usando abordagem ANFIS e dados históricos sobre o ciclo anual fluviométrico. Os dados foram coletados nas cidades de Santarém, Manaus e Itaituba, e foram filtrados ao período de 01/03/03 até 28/02/17. Foram realizadas análises dos dados para estabelecer valores limítrofes de alertas de situações emergentes para o monitoramento da cota do rio, compreendendo os momentos acerca dos volumes de água: seca, seca-normal, normal, normal-cheia e cheia. A série histórica pode ser considerada como confiável, pois é possível identificar claramente os ciclos anuais hidrológicos dos rios. Soluções preditivas usando técnicas estatísticas e computacionais são capazes de automatizar tais previsões com taxas relativamente baixas de erro do nível de um rio. Com isso, considera-se que a solução proposta pode ser usada para nortear ações que minorem os transtornos causados à cidade de Santarém nas situações extremas dos volumes de água do rio Amazonas. A abordagem proposta também demonstrou poder ser aplicável em outros ambientes com ciclos hidrológicos e, assim, possível aplicabilidade global.
Turing´s famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.
If you think ´´Modern´´ and ´´C´´ don´t belong in the same sentence, think again. The C standards committee actively reviews and extends the language, with updated published C standards as recently as 2018. In Modern C, author Jens Gustedt teaches you the skills and features you need to write relevant programs in this tried-and-true language, including Linux and Windows, device drivers, web servers and browsers, smartphones, and much more! Modern C teaches you to take your C programming skills to new heights, whether you´re just starting out with C or have more extensive experience. Organized by level, this comprehensive guide lets you jump in where it suits you best while still reaping the maximum benefits. Key Features Fundamentals of C programming Operators and functions Performance techniques C library functions For more than four decades, C has proved its usefulness and staying power for everything from massive systems for mainframes, satellites, and internet browsers to tiny embedded systems in vending machines, credit card readers, and alarm clocks. Today you´ll find lightning-fast, elegant C programs running in smartphone kernels, databases, 3D movies, video games, and scores of other modern applications. For programmers comfortable writing simple programs in a language like Java, Python, Ruby, C#, C++, or C. Jens Gustedt has been a senior scientist at the French National Institute for Computer Science and Control (INRIA) since 1998, working in areas including algorithms, scientific experimentation, models for coarse-grained parallelism, and distributed locking. Currently, he´s conducting the Modular C project, which has given rise to libraries such as arbogast and EiLck.
´´Barrierefreiheit einfach machen´´ könnte das Motto dieses Buches lauten. Es bietet eine einsteigerfreundliche und verständliche Einführung für Online-Redakteure, Content Manager und alle anderen, die ihre Websites und Inhalte für alle Nutzer zugänglich aufbereiten wollen. Der Autor hält sich nicht mit komplizierten Leitlinien auf, sondern zeigt anschaulich, welche Probleme in der Praxis auftreten und wie sie gelöst oder vermieden werden können. Nach und nach wird erläutert, wie die Website selbst, aber auch Texte und Bilder barrierefrei und nutzergerecht aufbereitet werden. Das Buch zeigt, dass Barrierefreiheit allen Nutzern und nicht zuletzt dem Anbieter selbst zugute kommt.
A primer on the underlying technologies that allow computer programs to work. Covers topics like computer hardware, combinatorial logic, sequential logic, computer architecture, computer anatomy, and Input/Output. Many coders are unfamiliar with the underlying technologies that make their programs run. But why should you care when your code appears to work? Because you want it to run well and not be riddled with hard-to-find bugs. You don´t want to be in the news because your code had a security problem. Lots of technical detail is available online but it´s not organized or collected into a convenient place. In The Secret Life of Programs, veteran engineer Jonathan E. Steinhart explores--in depth--the foundational concepts that underlie the machine. Subjects like computer hardware, how software behaves on hardware, as well as how people have solved problems using technology over time. You´ll learn: * How the real world is converted into a form that computers understand, like bits, logic, numbers, text, and colors * The fundamental building blocks that make up a computer including logic gates, adders, decoders, registers, and memory * Why designing programs to match computer hardware, especially memory, improves performance * How programs are converted into machine language that computers understand * How software building blocks are combined to create programs like web browsers * Clever tricks for making programs more efficient, like loop invariance, strength reduction, and recursive subdivision * The fundamentals of computer security and machine intelligence * Project design, documentation, scheduling, portability, maintenance, and other practical programming realities. Learn what really happens when your code runs on the machine and you´ll learn to craft better, more efficient code.