Turing´s famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.
This volume aims to stimulate discussions on research involving the use of data and digital images as an understanding approach for analysis and visualization of phenomena and experiments. The emphasis is put not only on graphically representing data as a way of increasing its visual analysis, but also on the imaging systems which contribute greatly to the comprehension of real cases. Scientific Visualization and Imaging Systems encompass multidisciplinary areas, with applications in many knowledge fields such as Engineering, Medicine, Material Science, Physics, Geology, Geographic Information Systems, among others. This book is a selection of 13 revised and extended research papers presented in the International Conference on Advanced Computational Engineering and Experimenting -ACE-X conferences 2010 (Paris), 2011 (Algarve), 2012 (Istanbul) and 2013 (Madrid). The examples were particularly chosen from materials research, medical applications, general concepts applied in simulations and image analysis and other interesting related problems.
Die Zukunft der modernen Industriegesellschaft hängt letztlich nicht von ökonomischen, vielmehr von kulturellen und politischen Faktoren ab. Das erfahren heute alle, die in Wirtschaft und Verwaltung, in Politik und Wissenschaft für diese Zukunft einstehen. Im vorliegenden Buch wird zunächst die gewandelte Einstellung in der Bevölkerung zu ihren industriegesellschaftlichen Lebensgrundlagen untersucht; die Ursachen reichen weit über die uns bedrängenden ökologischen Probleme hinaus. Dennoch bringen sich Wohlfahrt und Freiheit unverändert als Lebensvorzüge der modernen Industriegesellschaft zur Geltung. Der Aufbruch im Bereich des ehemaligen Sozialismus demonstriert das eindrucksvoll. Als orientierungspraktisch-kulturelle Konsequenz ergibt sich: Verlangt ist nicht die Suche nach großen alternativen Gesellschaftsentwürfen, vielmehr politische, ökonomische und wissenschaftlich-technische Steuerungskunst unter den moralischen und kulturellen Zielvorgaben des Gemeinsinns.
Privatsphäre? Was ist das? Wozu brauch ich das? Und was bringt mir das überhaupt? Kann ich nicht viel einfacher ohne Privatsphäre leben? In Zeiten in denen wir hin- und hergerissen sind zwischen unserem öffentlichen Leben auf (un)sozialen Medien, der Überwachung durch Geheimdienste und der Manipulation durch Internetkonzerne, helfen uns neue (alte!) Ideen wieder einen Raum für uns zurückzuerobern: Unsere Privatsphäre. Wie wir diese schützen und stärken zeigt dieses Buch. Denn - wir haben alle etwas zu verlieren - unsere Freiheit und unsere Privatsphäre. Tun wir etwas gegen diesen Verlust.
Virtual machines are rapidly becoming an essential element in providing system security, flexibility, cross-platform compatibility, reliability, and resource efficiency. Designed to solve problems in combining and using major computer system components, virtual machine technologies are important to a number of disciplines, including operating systems, programming languages, and computer architecture. For example, at the process level, virtualizing technologies support dynamic program translation and platform-independent network computing. At the system level, they support multiple operating system environments on the same hardware platform and in servers. Historically, individual virtual machine techniques have been developed within the specific disciplines that employ them (in some cases they aren?t even referred to as ?virtual machines?), making it difficult to see their common underlying relationships in a cohesive way. In this text, Smith and Nair take a new approach by examining virtual machines as a unified discipline. Pulling together cross-cutting technologies allows virtual machine implementations to be studied and engineered in a well-structured manner. Topics include instruction set emulation, dynamic program translation and optimization, high level virtual machines (including Java and CLI), and system virtual machines for both single-user systems and servers.
Dieses Praxisbuch behandelt zwei Themenfelder: Das gewinnbringende Verkaufen von eigenen Artikeln auf eBay Kleinanzeigen und das Entdecken von günstigen Schnäppchen. eBay Kleinanzeigen ist die größte private Anzeigenplattform Deutschlands. Bei mehr als 375 Millionen Seitenaufrufen im Monat erreichen Sie eine riesige Anzahl von potenziellen Kunden. Außerdem finden Sie mit Leichtigkeit gute Kaufangebote. In diesem Buch lesen Sie Folgendes: - die ersten Artikel einstellen - perfekte Beschreibungstexte schreiben - Versand und Porto optimieren - kostenlose Werbung für die Angebote - interessante Fotos einstellen - professionelle Nachrichten schreiben - richtigen Verkaufspreis wählen - günstig einkaufen auf eBay Kleinanzeigen - verschiedene Angebote vergleichen - sicher und schnell Artikel bezahlen - gewerblich bei eBay Kleinanzeigen handeln - alternative Kleinanzeigen-Plattformen - Linktipps mit weiterführenden Infos - Praxisbeispiele Verdienen Sie sich mit dem Verkauf bei eBay Kleinanzeigen ein kleines Nebeneinkommen! Lernen Sie außerdem neue Leute aus Ihrer Nachbarschaft kennen, tun Sie etwas Gutes für die Umwelt und entrümpeln Sie Ihre Wohnung - ganz nebenbei! Die Inhalte des Buches gehen weit über das grundlegende Einsteigerwissen hinaus. Die Praxisbeispiele und Linktipps liefern auch Experten weiteres Know-how zum erfolgreichen Handeln.
This book provides the first extensive survey of block ciphers following the Lai-Massey design paradigm. After the introduction, with historical remarks, the author structures the book into a chapter on the description of the PES, IDEA and other related ciphers, followed by a chapter on cryptanalysis of these ciphers, and another chapter on new cipher designs. The appendices include surveys of cryptographic substitution boxes and of MDS codes. This comprehensive treatment can serve as a reference source for researchers, students and practitioners.
This textbook presents fundamental machine learning concepts in an easy to understand manner by providing practical advice, using straightforward examples, and offering engaging discussions of relevant applications. The main topics include Bayesian classifiers, nearest-neighbor classifiers, linear and polynomial classifiers, decision trees, neural networks, and support vector machines. Later chapters show how to combine these simple tools by way of ´´boosting,´´ how to exploit them in more complicated domains, and how to deal with diverse advanced practical issues. One chapter is dedicated to the popular genetic algorithms. This revised edition contains three entirely new chapters on critical topics regarding the pragmatic application of machine learning in industry. The chapters examine multi-label domains, unsupervised learning and its use in deep learning, and logical approaches to induction. Numerous chapters have been expanded, and the presentation of the material has been enhanced. The book contains many new exercises, numerous solved examples, thought-provoking experiments, and computer assignments for independent work.
This textbook explains the concepts and techniques required to write programs that can handle large amounts of data efficiently. Project-oriented and classroom-tested, the book presents a number of important algorithms supported by examples that bring meaning to the problems faced by computer programmers. The idea of computational complexity is also introduced, demonstrating what can and cannot be computed efficiently so that the programmer can make informed judgements about the algorithms they use. Features: includes both introductory and advanced data structures and algorithms topics, with suggested chapter sequences for those respective courses provided in the preface; provides learning goals, review questions and programming exercises in each chapter, as well as numerous illustrative examples; offers downloadable programs and supplementary files at an associated website, with instructor materials available from the author; presents a primer on Python for those from a different language background.
The go-to MCSA prep guide, updated for Windows 10 and the new exams MCSA Windows 10 Complete Study Guide is your comprehensive resource for taking both Exams 70-698 and 70-697. Covering 100% of all exam objectives, this study guide goes beyond mere review to delve deeper into the complex topics and technologies to help you strengthen your understanding and sharpen your skills. Written by a veteran Microsoft MVP, this guide walks you through MCSA skills in context to show you how concepts are applied in real-world situations. Hands-on exercises speed the learning process and facilitate internalization, while review questions challenge and test the depth of your understanding. You also get access to the Sybex interactive online learning environment, featuring flashcards, videos, an assessment test, and bonus practice exams to face exam day with confidence. The MCSA certification process has changed; Exam 70-698 tests your skills in installing and configuring Windows 10, and then Exam 70-697 gauges your abilities in configuring Windows devices. This book is your ideal companion to study for both exams. Study 100 percent of the objectives for Exams 70-698 and 70-697 Apply your knowledge with hands-on exercises Test your skills with challenging review questions Access videos, electronic flashcards, a searchable glossary, and bonus practice exams The demand for qualified Windows 10 professionals will be high, as more than half of the corporate user base that skipped Windows 8/8.1 is expected to adopt Windows 10. If you want the skills that are in demand, you need to get certified; if you´re ready to get serious about the exam, MCSA: Windows 10 Complete Study Guide is the resource you shouldn´t be without.
A metaheuristic is a higher-level procedure designed to select a heuristic (partial search algorithm) that may lead to a sufficiently good solution to an optimization problem, especially with incomplete or imperfect information. The basic principle of metaheuristics is to sample a set of solutions which is large enough to be completely sampled. As metaheuristics make few assumptions about the optimization problem to be solved, they may be put to use in a variety of problems. Metaheuristics do not however, guarantee that a globally optimal solution can be found on some class of problems since most of them implement some form of stochastic optimization. Hence the solution found is often dependent on the set of random variables generated. By searching over a large set of feasible solutions, metaheuristics can often find good solutions with less computational effort than optimization algorithms, iterative methods, or simple heuristics. As such, they are useful approaches for optimization problems. Even though the metaheuristics are robust enough to yield optimum solutions, yet they often suffer from time complexity and degenerate solutions. In an effort to alleviate these problems, scientists and researchers have come up with the hybridization of the different metaheuristic approaches by conjoining with other soft computing tools and techniques to yield failsafe solutions. In a recent advancement, quantum mechanical principles are being employed to cut down the time complexity of the metaheuristic approaches to a great extent. Thus, the hybrid metaheuristic approaches have come a long way in dealing with the real life optimization problems quite successfully. Proper and faithful analysis of digital images has been in the helm of affairs in the computer vision research community given the varied amount of uncertainty inherent in digital images. Images exhibit varied uncertainty and ambiguity of information and hence understanding an image scene is far from being a general procedure. The situation becomes even graver when the images become corrupt with noise artifacts. The applications of proper analysis of images encompass a wide range of applications which include image processing, image mining, image inpainting, video surveillance, intelligent transportation systems to name a few. One of the notable areas of research in image analysis is the estimation of age progression in human beings through analysis of wrinkles in face images, which can be further utilized for tracing unknown or missing persons. Hurdle detection is one of the common tasks in robotic vision that have been done through image processing, by identifying different type of objects in the image and then calculating the distance between robot and hurdles. Image analysis has a lot to contribute in this direction. Processing of color images takes the problem of image analysis to a new dimension. Apart from processing and analysis of the color gamut which involves a lot of computational overhead, the problem also involves analysis of the varied amount of uncertainty exhibited by the color images. A video is a very fast movement of pictures. Video analysis as a part of image analysis focuses on Shot Boundary Detection (SBD), dissolve detection, detection of gradual transitions and detection of fade ins/outs. Recent trends in research on image analysis rely heavily on pose and gesture analysis. Typical applications include human-machine interaction, behavior analysis, video surveillance, annotation, search and retrieval, motion capture for the entertainment industry and interactive web-based applications. Real-time video analysis algorithms mainly focus on hand and head tracking and gesture analysis. A faithful gesture recognition algorithm can be implemented with techniques borrowed from computer vision and image processing. The evolution of the functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has led to proper analysis of the study mechanisms in the brain. Several statistic