Limited to a strict interpretation of its definition, open source consists of a set of rules which apply to a piece of software and which specify how the software and derivatives of it may be used. However, it is widely seen as much more than a simple licensing agreement, it is a ´´philoshophy´´, a ´´production model´´, a ´´way of organizing projects´´, or even ´´a new innovation model´´. But how are open source projects organized and how is work coordinated and distributed between its developers? This work contributes by examining actual source code changes, comparing 29 projects. Which developers collaborate in the same files and wich work exclusively in their own domain? Looking for patterns across projects, this work attempts to identify coordination styles in open source projects.
Are you attracted by the promises of agile methods but put off by the fanaticism of many agile texts? Would you like to know which agile techniques work, which ones do not matter much, and which ones will harm your projects? Then you need Agile! : the first exhaustive, objective review of agile principles, techniques and tools. Agile methods are one of the most important developments in software over the past decades, but also a surprising mix of the best and the worst. Until now every project and developer had to sort out the good ideas from the bad by themselves. This book spares you the pain. It offers both a thorough descriptive presentation of agile techniques and a perceptive analysis of their benefits and limitations. Agile! serves first as a primer on agile development : one chapter each introduces agile principles, roles, managerial practices, technical practices and artifacts. A separate chapter analyzes the four major agile methods: Extreme Programming, Lean Software, Scrum and Crystal. The accompanying critical analysis explains what you should retain and discard from agile ideas. It is based on Meyer´s thorough understanding of software engineering, and his extensive personal experience of programming and project management. He highlights the limitations of agile methods as well as their truly brilliant contributions - even those to which their own authors do not do full justice. Three important chapters precede the core discussion of agile ideas: an overview, serving as a concentrate of the entire book; a dissection of the intellectual devices used by agile authors; and a review of classical software engineering techniques, such as requirements analysis and lifecycle models, which agile methods criticize. The final chapters describe the precautions that a company should take during a transition to agile development and present an overall assessment of agile ideas. This is the first book to discuss agile methods, beyond the brouhaha, in the general context of modern software engineering. It is a key resource for projects that want to combine the best of established results and agile innovations.
The Unified Modeling Language (UML) provides an environment for modeling complex systems. It supports a variety of diagrams for analyzing, designing, and implementing software systems. During the requirements phase, developers abstract concepts from the application domain and describe what the system is intended to do, not how it will do it. UML was adopted as a standard for OO modeling by the Object Management Group in 1997 and has found use in various software development projects. However, the continued success of any new technology depends a great deal on its usability. To predict the future success of a language like UML it is important to address the issue of usability from the perspective of the users of the language, the software developers. This publication reports on the results of an empirical study aimed at assessing the usability of UML for developing software requirements. It addresses the dimensions of ease of use, usefulness, and usefulness for communicating requirements to various project stakeholders.
Master the fundamentals of Scala and understand its emphasis on functional programming that sets it apart from Java. This book will help you translate what you already know in Java to Scala to start your functional programming journey. Learn Scala is split into four parts: a tour of Scala, a comparison between Java and Scala, Scala-specific features and functional programming idioms, and finally a discussion about adopting Scala in existing Java teams and legacy projects. After reading and using this tutorial, you´ll come away with the skills in Scala to kick-start your productivity with this growing popular language. What You´ll Learn Tour Scala and learn the basic syntax, constructs, and how to use the REPL Translate Java syntax that you already know into Scala Learn what Scala offers over and above Java Become familiar with functional programming concepts and idioms Gain tips and advice useful when transitioning existing Java projects to Scala Who This Book Is For Java developers looking to transition to Scala. No prior experience necessary in Scala.
Hospital management system is the most important part for Doctors. As test is the most important for knowing cause of any diseases. Besides maintaining other records of the hospital every year or after some time, the price of conducting tests changes, then it issues a list of prices of every test. Hence, software concerning Hospital Management should be well organized for its efficient working. So, this project is an attempt to relieve the burden of manual system by providing fully automated and a secure system. The function, which this system provides, is maintaining the records of the patient pertaining to his name, address, tests and tests results. The password system check allows only the authorized person to use the system in order to maintain the security of the system and if the user forgets his password then he can use his security question and password to enter the system.
This book would serve as an ideal guide for B.E., B.Tech., B.S., B.Sc, B.C.A., undergraduate students of Computer Science and Engineering, Information Technology, Electronics and Communication Engineering who wish to take up projects on applications of fog and edge computing. Students pursuing postgraduate course in Science and Engineering, M.E., M.Tech., M.S., M.Sc., M.C.A. students will find this book useful for their projects. Research Scholars working in the area of fog computing, edge computing and Internet of Things will find this book as a handy reference guide for their M.Phil., Ph.D. D.Sc., and other post-doctoral research works. Software and Hardware Engineers working in IT and ITES sector specifically on fog computing, edge computing and IoT domains, would find this book as a useful resource. As a word of conclusion, I believe that the reader will find this book as a helpful guide and a valuable source of information about principles of fog and edge computing.
Work with blockchain and understand its potential application beyond cryptocurrencies in the domains of healthcare, Internet of Things, finance, decentralized organizations, and open science. Featuring case studies and practical insights generated from a start-up spun off from the author´s own lab, this book covers a unique mix of topics not found in others and offers insight into how to overcome real hurdles that arise as the market and consumers grow accustomed to blockchain based start-ups. You´ll start with a review of the historical origins of blockchain and explore the basic cryptography needed to make the blockchain work for Bitcoin. You will then learn about the technical advancements made in the surrounded ecosystem: the Ethereum virtual machine, Solidity, Colored Coins, the Hyperledger Project, Blockchain-as-a-service offered through IBM, Microsoft and more. This book looks at the consequences of machine-to-machine transactions using the blockchain socially, technologically, economically and politically. Blockchain Enabled Applications provides you with a clear perspective of the ecosystem that has developed around the blockchain and the various industries it has penetrated. What You´ll Learn Implement the code-base from Fabric and Sawtooth, two open source blockchain-efforts being developed under the Hyperledger Project Evaluate the benefits of integrating blockchain with emerging technologies, such as machine learning and artificial intelligence in the cloud Use the practical insights provided by the case studies to your own projects or start-up ideas Set up a development environment to compile and manage projects Who This Book Is For Developers who are interested in learning about the blockchain as a data-structure, the recent advancements being made and how to implement the code-base. Decision makers within large corporations (product managers, directors or CIO level executives) interested in implementing the blockchain who need more practical insights and not just theory.
This textbook explains the concepts and techniques required to write programs that can handle large amounts of data efficiently. Project-oriented and classroom-tested, the book presents a number of important algorithms supported by examples that bring meaning to the problems faced by computer programmers. The idea of computational complexity is also introduced, demonstrating what can and cannot be computed efficiently so that the programmer can make informed judgements about the algorithms they use. Features: includes both introductory and advanced data structures and algorithms topics, with suggested chapter sequences for those respective courses provided in the preface; provides learning goals, review questions and programming exercises in each chapter, as well as numerous illustrative examples; offers downloadable programs and supplementary files at an associated website, with instructor materials available from the author; presents a primer on Python for those from a different language background.
Since the 70s, the C preprocessor is still widely used in practice in a number of projects to tailor systems to different platforms and application scenarios. In academia, researchers have criticized its lack of separation of concerns, its proneness to introduce subtle errors, and its obfuscation of the source code. To better understand the problems of using the C preprocessor, we conducted 40 interviews and a survey among 202 developers. We found that developers deal with three common problems in practice: configuration-related bugs, combinatorial testing, and code comprehension. To better deal with these problems, this book presents strategies to detect bugs and bad smells in preprocessor-based systems based on variability-aware analysis and sampling. This work presents useful findings for C developers during their development tasks, contributing to minimize the chances of introducing configuration-related bugs and bad smells, improve code comprehension, and guide developers to perform combinatorial testing.