A decision procedure is an algorithm that, given a decision problem, terminates with a correct yes/no answer. Here, the authors focus on theories that are expressive enough to model real problems, but are still decidable. Specifically, the book concentrates on decision procedures for first-order theories that are commonly used in automated verification and reasoning, theorem-proving, compiler optimization and operations research. The techniques described in the book draw from fields such as graph theory and logic, and are routinely used in industry. The authors introduce the basic terminology of satisfiability modulo theories and then, in separate chapters, study decision procedures for each of the following theories: propositional logic; equalities and uninterpreted functions; linear arithmetic; bit vectors; arrays; pointer logic; and quantified formulas.
This fourth Edition presents new examples on submodules, derived type i/o, object oriented programming, abstract interfaces and procedure pointers, C interop, sorting and searching, statistics and converting to more modern versions of Fortran. Key Features Highlights the core language features of modern Fortran including data typing, array processing, control structures, functions, subroutines, modules and submodules, user defined types, pointers, operator overloading, generic programming, parallel programming, abstract interfaces, procedure pointers Pinpoints common problems that occur when programming Illustrates the use of several compilers Introduction to Programming with Fortran has been written for the complete beginner with little or no programming background as well as existing Fortran programmers and those with programming experience in other languages
Today, reliable software systems are the basis of any business or company. The continuous further development of those systems is the central component in software evolution. It requires a huge amount of time- man power- as well as financial resources. The challenges are size, seniority and heterogeneity of those software systems. Christian Wagner addresses software evolution: the inherent problems and uncertainties in the process. He presents a model-driven method which leads to a synchronization between source code and design. As a result the model layer will be the central part in further evolution and source code becomes a by-product. For the first time a model-driven procedure for maintenance and migration of software systems is described. The procedure is composed of a model-driven reengineering and a model-driven migration phase. The application and effectiveness of the procedure are confirmed with a reference implementation applied to four exemplary systems.
Networking´s leading authority joins Sybex for the ultimate CCNA prep guide CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide, 2nd Edition is your comprehensive review for the CCNA exams. Written by the leading authority on networking technology, this guide covers 100% of all objectives for the latest ICND1, ICND2, and CCNA Composite exams. Hands-on labs help you gain experience in critical procedures and practices, and the network simulator provides a realistic lab environment so you can practice at your own pace. Gain access to the Sybex online learning environment, featuring a robust set of study tools including: practice questions, flashcards, video instruction, and an extensive glossary of terms to help you better prepare for exam day. The pre-assessment test helps you prioritize your study time, and bonus practice exams allow you to test your understanding. Need more practice? Get 20% off a year subscription and free access to premium Cisco Labs--providing hands-on, real-world experience using Cisco Routers, Switches, and Firewalls. Free online video training is also included, with almost forty hours of Routing and Switching guidance from the experts at ITProTV. The CCNA certification is essential to a career in networking, and the exam can be taken in two parts or as a composite. Whichever you choose, this book is your essential guide for complete review. Master IP data network operation Troubleshoot issues and keep the network secure Understand switching and routing technologies Work with IPv4 and IPv6 addressing Full coverage and expert insight makes CCNA Routing and Switching Complete Study Guide your ultimate companion for CCNA prep.
In many decision problems, it is a priori known that the target function should satisfy certain constraints imposed by, for example, economic theory or a human-decision maker. One common type is the monotonicity constraint stating that the greater an input is, the greater the output must be, all other inputs being equal. Well-known examples include investment decisions, medical diagnosis, selection and evaluation tasks. However, often the models obtained by traditional data mining techniques alone does not meet these constraints. Therefore, this book provides a thorough study on the incorporation of monotonicity constraints into a data mining process to improve knowledge discovery and facilitate the decision-making process for end-users by deriving more accurate and plausible decision models. The main contributions include a novel procedure to test the degree of monotonicity of a data set, a greedy algorithm to transform non-monotone into monotone data, and extended and novel approaches to build monotone decision models. The theoretical and empirical findings should be valuable to graduates, researchers and practitioners involved in the study and development of data mining systems.