Limited to a strict interpretation of its definition, open source consists of a set of rules which apply to a piece of software and which specify how the software and derivatives of it may be used. However, it is widely seen as much more than a simple licensing agreement, it is a ´´philoshophy´´, a ´´production model´´, a ´´way of organizing projects´´, or even ´´a new innovation model´´. But how are open source projects organized and how is work coordinated and distributed between its developers? This work contributes by examining actual source code changes, comparing 29 projects. Which developers collaborate in the same files and wich work exclusively in their own domain? Looking for patterns across projects, this work attempts to identify coordination styles in open source projects.
Familiarize yourself with MATLAB using this concise, practical tutorial that is focused on writing code to learn concepts. Starting from the basics, this book covers array-based computing, plotting and working with files, numerical computation formalism, and the primary concepts of approximations. Introduction to MATLAB is useful for industry engineers, researchers, and students who are looking for open-source solutions for numerical computation. In this book you will learn by doing, avoiding technical jargon, which makes the concepts easy to learn. First you´ll see how to run basic calculations, absorbing technical complexities incrementally as you progress toward advanced topics. Throughout, the language is kept simple to ensure that readers at all levels can grasp the concepts. What You´ll Learn Apply sample code to your engineering or science problems Work with MATLAB arrays, functions, and loops Use MATLAB´s plotting functions for data visualization Solve numerical computing and computational engineering problems with a MATLAB case study Who This Book Is For Engineers, scientists, researchers, and students who are new to MATLAB. Some prior programming experience would be helpful but not required.
Familiarize yourself with the basics of Python for engineering and scientific computations using this concise, practical tutorial that is focused on writing code to learn concepts. Introduction to Python is useful for industry engineers, researchers, and students who are looking for open-source solutions for numerical computation. In this book you will learn by doing, avoiding technical jargon, which makes the concepts easy to learn. First you´ll see how to run basic calculations, absorbing technical complexities incrementally as you progress toward advanced topics. Throughout, the language is kept simple to ensure that readers at all levels can grasp the concepts. What You´ll Learn Understand the fundamentals of the Python programming language Apply Python to numerical computational programming projects in engineering and science Discover the Pythonic way of life Apply data types, operators, and arrays Carry out plotting for visualization Work with functions and loops Who This Book Is For Engineers, scientists, researchers, and students who are new to Python. Some prior programming experience would be helpful but not required.
Linux Terminal Server Project (LTSP) is a free and open source add-on package for Linux that allows many people to simultaneously use the same computer. Applications run on the server with a terminal known as a thin client (also known as an X terminal) handling input and output. Generally, terminals are low-powered, lack a hard disk and are quieter than desktop computers because they do not have any moving parts.This technology is becoming popular in schools as it allows the school to provide pupils access to computers without purchasing or upgrading expensive desktop machines. If the school does not have enough computers, new thin client machines are less costly than standard computers. If the school does have enough computers but they are a few years old, they may be able to extend the useful life of obsolescent computers by converting them into thin clients, since even a relatively slow CPU can deliver excellent performance as a thin client.
This book is published open access under a CC BY 4.0 license. This book presents computer programming as a key method for solving mathematical problems. This second edition of the well-received book has been extensively revised: All code is now written in Python version 3.6 (no longer version 2.7). In addition, the two first chapters of the previous edition have been extended and split up into five new chapters, thus expanding the introduction to programming from 50 to 150 pages. Throughout the book, the explanations provided are now more detailed, previous examples have been modified, and new sections, examples and exercises have been added. Also, a number of small errors have been corrected. The book was inspired by the Springer book TCSE 6: A Primer on Scientific Programming with Python (by Langtangen), but the style employed is more accessible and concise, in keeping with the needs of engineering students. The book outlines the shortest possible path from no previous experience with programming to a set of skills that allows students to write simple programs for solving common mathematical problems with numerical methods in the context of engineering and science courses. The emphasis is on generic algorithms, clean program design, the use of functions, and automatic tests for verification.
Leverage the numerical and mathematical modules in Python and its standard library as well as popular open source numerical Python packages like NumPy, SciPy, FiPy, matplotlib and more. This fully revised edition, updated with the latest details of each package and changes to Jupyter projects, demonstrates how to numerically compute solutions and mathematically model applications in big data, cloud computing, financial engineering, business management and more. Numerical Python, Second Edition , presents many brand-new case study examples of applications in data science and statistics using Python, along with extensions to many previous examples. Each of these demonstrates the power of Python for rapid development and exploratory computing due to its simple and high-level syntax and multiple options for data analysis. After reading this book, readers will be familiar with many computing techniques including array-based and symbolic computing, visualization and numerical file I/O, equation solving, optimization, interpolation and integration, and domain-specific computational problems, such as differential equation solving, data analysis, statistical modeling and machine learning. W hat You´ll Learn Work with vectors and matrices using NumPy Plot and visualize data with Matplotlib Perform data analysis tasks with Pandas and SciPy Review statistical modeling and machine learning with statsmodels and scikit-learn Optimize Python code using Numba and Cython Who This Book Is For Developers who want to understand how to use Python and its related ecosystem for numerical computing.
The introduction of public key cryptography (PKC) was a critical advance in IT security. In contrast to symmetric key cryptography, it enables confidential communication between entities in open networks, in particular the Internet, without prior contact. Beyond this PKC also enables protection techniques that have no analogue in traditional cryptography, most importantly digital signatures which for example support Internet security by authenticating software downloads and updates. Although PKC does not require the confidential exchange of secret keys, proper management of the private and public keys used in PKC is still of vital importance: the private keys must remain private, and the public keys must be verifiably authentic. So understanding so-called public key infrastructures (PKIs) that manage key pairs is at least as important as studying the ingenious mathematical ideas underlying PKC. In this book the authors explain the most important concepts underlying PKIs and discuss relevant standards, implementations, and applications. The book is structured into chapters on the motivation for PKI, certificates, trust models, private keys, revocation, validity models, certification service providers, certificate policies, certification paths, and practical aspects of PKI. This is a suitable textbook for advanced undergraduate and graduate courses in computer science, mathematics, engineering, and related disciplines, complementing introductory courses on cryptography. The authors assume only basic computer science prerequisites, and they include exercises in all chapters and solutions in an appendix. They also include detailed pointers to relevant standards and implementation guidelines, so the book is also appropriate for self-study and reference by industrial and academic researchers and practitioners.
Learn best practices for building bots by focusing on the technological implementation and UX in this practical book. You will cover key topics such as setting up a development environment for creating chatbots for multiple channels (Facebook Messenger, Skype, and KiK); building a chatbot (design to implementation); integrating to IFTT (If This Then That) and IoT (Internet of Things); carrying out analytics and metrics for chatbots; and most importantly monetizing models and business sense for chatbots. Build Better Chatbots is easy to follow with code snippets provided in the book and complete code open sourced and available to download. With Facebook opening up its Messenger platform for developers, followed by Microsoft opening up Skype for development, a new channel has emerged for brands to acquire, engage, and service customers on chat with chatbots. What You Will Learn Work with the bot development life cycle Master bot UX design Integrate into the bot ecosystem Maximize the business and monetization potential for bots Who This Book Is For Developers, programmers, and hobbyists who have basic programming knowledge. The book can be used by existing chatbot developers to gain a better understanding of analytics and the business side of bots.
This book presents a new suite of benchmarks for and examples of porous media mechanics collected over the last two years. It continues the assembly of benchmarks and examples for porous media mechanics published in 2014. The book covers various applications in the geosciences, geotechnics, geothermal energy, and geological waste deposition. The analysis of thermo-hydro-mechanical-chemical (THMC) processes is essential to many applications in environmental engineering, such as geological waste deposition, geothermal energy utilisation, carbon capture and storage, water resources management, hydrology, and even climate change. In order to assess the feasibility and safety of geotechnical applications, process-based modelling is the only tool that can effectively quantify future scenarios, a fact which also creates a huge burden of responsibility concerning the reliability of computational tools. The book shows that benchmarking offers a suitable methodology for verifying the quality of modelling tools based on best practices, and together with code comparison fosters community efforts. It also provides a brief introduction to the DECOVALEX, SeSBench and MOMAS initiatives. This benchmark book is part of the OpenGeoSys initiative - an open source project designed to share knowledge and experience in environmental analysis and scientific computation.