Limited to a strict interpretation of its definition, open source consists of a set of rules which apply to a piece of software and which specify how the software and derivatives of it may be used. However, it is widely seen as much more than a simple licensing agreement, it is a ´´philoshophy´´, a ´´production model´´, a ´´way of organizing projects´´, or even ´´a new innovation model´´. But how are open source projects organized and how is work coordinated and distributed between its developers? This work contributes by examining actual source code changes, comparing 29 projects. Which developers collaborate in the same files and wich work exclusively in their own domain? Looking for patterns across projects, this work attempts to identify coordination styles in open source projects.
This book explains how to use a data-driven approach to design strategies for social media content delivery. It first introduces readers to how social information can be effectively gathered for big data analysis, which provides content delivery intelligence. Secondly, the book describes data-driven models to capture information diffusion in online social networks and social media content propagation and popularity, before presenting prediction models for social media content delivery. By addressing the resource allocation and content replication aspects of social media content delivery, the book presents the latest data-driven strategies. In closing, it outlines a number of potential research directions regarding social media content delivery.
Cyber-physical systems (CPSs) combine cyber capabilities, such as computation or communication, with physical capabilities, such as motion or other physical processes. Cars, aircraft, and robots are prime examples, because they move physically in space in a way that is determined by discrete computerized control algorithms. Designing these algorithms is challenging due to their tight coupling with physical behavior, while it is vital that these algorithms be correct because we rely on them for safety-critical tasks. This textbook teaches undergraduate students the core principles behind CPSs. It shows them how to develop models and controls; identify safety specifications and critical properties; reason rigorously about CPS models; leverage multi-dynamical systems compositionality to tame CPS complexity; identify required control constraints; verify CPS models of appropriate scale in logic; and develop an intuition for operational effects. The book is supported with homework exercises, lecture videos, and slides.
This tutorial text gives a unifying perspective on machine learning by covering both probabilistic and deterministic approaches -which are based on optimization techniques - together with the Bayesian inference approach, whose essence lies in the use of a hierarchy of probabilistic models. The book presents the major machine learning methods as they have been developed in different disciplines, such as statistics, statistical and adaptive signal processing and computer science. Focusing on the physical reasoning behind the mathematics, all the various methods and techniques are explained in depth, supported by examples and problems, giving an invaluable resource to the student and researcher for understanding and applying machine learning concepts. The book builds carefully from the basic classical methods to the most recent trends, with chapters written to be as self-contained as possible, making the text suitable for different courses: pattern recognition, statistical/adaptive signal processing, statistical/Bayesian learning, as well as short courses on sparse modeling, deep learning, and probabilistic graphical models. All major classical techniques: Mean/Least-Squares regression and filtering, Kalman filtering, stochastic approximation and online learning, Bayesian classification, decision trees, logistic regression and boosting methods. The latest trends: Sparsity, convex analysis and optimization, online distributed algorithms, learning in RKH spaces, Bayesian inference, graphical and hidden Markov models, particle filtering, deep learning, dictionary learning and latent variables modeling. Case studies - protein folding prediction, optical character recognition, text authorship identification, fMRI data analysis, change point detection, hyperspectral image unmixing, target localization, channel equalization and echo cancellation, show how the theory can be applied. MATLAB code for all the main algorithms are available on an accompanying website, enabling the reader to experiment with the code.
Turing´s famous 1936 paper introduced a formal definition of a computing machine, a Turing machine. This model led to both the development of actual computers and to computability theory, the study of what machines can and cannot compute. This book presents classical computability theory from Turing and Post to current results and methods, and their use in studying the information content of algebraic structures, models, and their relation to Peano arithmetic. The author presents the subject as an art to be practiced, and an art in the aesthetic sense of inherent beauty which all mathematicians recognize in their subject. Part I gives a thorough development of the foundations of computability, from the definition of Turing machines up to finite injury priority arguments. Key topics include relative computability, and computably enumerable sets, those which can be effectively listed but not necessarily effectively decided, such as the theorems of Peano arithmetic. Part II includes the study of computably open and closed sets of reals and basis and nonbasis theorems for effectively closed sets. Part III covers minimal Turing degrees. Part IV is an introduction to games and their use in proving theorems. Finally, Part V offers a short history of computability theory. The author has honed the content over decades according to feedback from students, lecturers, and researchers around the world. Most chapters include exercises, and the material is carefully structured according to importance and difficulty. The book is suitable for advanced undergraduate and graduate students in computer science and mathematics and researchers engaged with computability and mathematical logic.
Learn Intel 64 assembly language and architecture, become proficient in C, and understand how the programs are compiled and executed down to machine instructions, enabling you to write robust, high-performance code. Low-Level Programming explains Intel 64 architecture as the result of von Neumann architecture evolution. The book teaches the latest version of the C language (C11) and assembly language from scratch. It covers the entire path from source code to program execution, including generation of ELF object files, and static and dynamic linking. Code examples and exercises are included along with the best code practices. Optimization capabilities and limits of modern compilers are examined, enabling you to balance between program readability and performance. The use of various performance-gain techniques is demonstrated, such as SSE instructions and pre-fetching. Relevant Computer Science topics such as models of computation and formal grammars are addressed, and their practical value explained. What You´ll Learn Low-Level Programming teaches programmers to: Freely write in assembly language Understand the programming model of Intel 64 Write maintainable and robust code in C11 Follow the compilation process and decipher assembly listings Debug errors in compiled assembly code Use appropriate models of computation to greatly reduce program complexity Write performance-critical code Comprehend the impact of a weak memory model in multi-threaded applications Who This Book Is For Intermediate to advanced programmers and programming students
Learn best practices for building bots by focusing on the technological implementation and UX in this practical book. You will cover key topics such as setting up a development environment for creating chatbots for multiple channels (Facebook Messenger, Skype, and KiK); building a chatbot (design to implementation); integrating to IFTT (If This Then That) and IoT (Internet of Things); carrying out analytics and metrics for chatbots; and most importantly monetizing models and business sense for chatbots. Build Better Chatbots is easy to follow with code snippets provided in the book and complete code open sourced and available to download. With Facebook opening up its Messenger platform for developers, followed by Microsoft opening up Skype for development, a new channel has emerged for brands to acquire, engage, and service customers on chat with chatbots. What You Will Learn Work with the bot development life cycle Master bot UX design Integrate into the bot ecosystem Maximize the business and monetization potential for bots Who This Book Is For Developers, programmers, and hobbyists who have basic programming knowledge. The book can be used by existing chatbot developers to gain a better understanding of analytics and the business side of bots.
This book focuses on statistical inferences related to various combinatorial stochastic processes. Specifically, it discusses the intersection of three subjects that are generally studied independently of each other: partitions, hypergeometric systems, and Dirichlet processes. The Gibbs partition is a family of measures on integer partition, and several prior processes, such as the Dirichlet process, naturally appear in connection with infinite exchangeable Gibbs partitions. Examples include the distribution on a contingency table with fixed marginal sums and the conditional distribution of Gibbs partition given the length. The A-hypergeometric distribution is a class of discrete exponential families and appears as the conditional distribution of a multinomial sample from log-affine models. The normalizing constant is the A-hypergeometric polynomial, which is a solution of a system of linear differential equations of multiple variables determined by a matrix A, called A-hypergeometric system. The book presents inference methods based on the algebraic nature of the A-hypergeometric system, and introduces the holonomic gradient methods, which numerically solve holonomic systems without combinatorial enumeration, to compute the normalizing constant. Furher, it discusses Markov chain Monte Carlo and direct samplers from A-hypergeometric distribution, as well as the maximum likelihood estimation of the A-hypergeometric distribution of two-row matrix using properties of polytopes and information geometry. The topics discussed are simple problems, but the interdisciplinary approach of this book appeals to a wide audience with an interest in statistical inference on combinatorial stochastic processes, including statisticians who are developing statistical theories and methodologies, mathematicians wanting to discover applications of their theoretical results, and researchers working in various fields of data sciences.
Erscheinungsdatum: 07/2011Medium: BuchEinband: GebundenTitel: Data MiningTitelzusatz: Concepts, Models and TechniquesAutor: Gorunescu, FlorinVerlag: Springer-Verlag GmbHSprache: EnglischSchlagworte: Data Mining // EDV // Ingenieurswesen // Maschin